SuperMemo won't work at school
Sent: Apr 18, 2017
Subject: Why don't students like school?
I am reading a book by Dr Daniel Willingham, he wrote something that made me pause. Do you agree?
laboratory studies show that repetition helps learning [like in SuperMemo], but any teacher knows that you can't take that finding and pop it into a classroom by, for example, having students repeat long division problems until they've mastered the process. Repetition is good for learning but terrible for motivation. With too much repetition, motivation plummets, students stop trying, and no learning takes place. The classroom application would not duplicate the laboratory result
Repetition can be terrible for motivation. I can also be fantastic for motivation.
The factors to consider:
- how well the learning material is remembered
- how well the learning material is structured (i.e. formulated for long-term retention)
- how useful/relevant the learning material is
In incremental reading, repetition is usually very motivational. The material is highly useful (selected by the user, not by a teacher), it is well formulated (incremental reading makes it easier to stick to "20 rules"), and the review usually occurs late enough to provide a "refreshing" amount of forgetting.
Naturally, in a classroom, it just does not work, and students will stay bored. Repetition may be too repetitive (too early), the material is not formulated for active recall (e.g. lecture format), and it is uninteresting or irrelevant to the student (the result of coercion).
Students will actually stay bored with or without repetition. That's the reality in most schools. The teacher might ask students to do SuperMemo, or incremental reading at home, but that defeats the purpose of school.
In the end, Willingham is right, except SuperMemo defies his observation (if used wisely).
A Teacher's Response
I have used SuperMemo and incremental reading since I finished secondary school, just over a decade ago. Since the start I realised it was the next stage of education. Also since the start, I've heard endless short-sighted criticisms. One of the most common was "SuperMemo is only good for memorising and mindless recall, not real learning". This was why I began exploring other forms of learning on SuperMemo such as music, and writing about it in my Procedural Supermemo blog. That was years ago.
Now I teach high school maths, chemistry, physics and economics and have written my own version of spaced repetition software which I am in the first year of trialling for chemistry (Note: I have tried using SuperMemo itself but it was a failure for reasons of user friendliness and general lack of tailoring to the teacher-classroom context). I formulate the knowledge for my students in the same terms as I teach in class. They only need 10 minutes at the start of each lesson and one or two 10 minute session at home (depending how spread out their classroom timetable is). I aim to have them use it 3-5 times a week, not every day.
In terms of motivation... for them it is just work like any other classwork! Nothing better or worse. I could ask them to do 10 questions from the textbook or 10 questions on the spaced repetition software, but I know the latter will be infinitely more beneficial over the course of a year or two. I also display their memory strength in terms of intervals, which is motivating, and plan to add more achievement badges and the like. Either way, it has made little difference to their motivation so far, and I hope that after a year or two of amassing a large amount of curriculum-relevant chemistry knowledge their test scores will be higher than ever and they will appreciate the value of spaced repetition. For now it is just another type of work.
In terms of learning, I have taught the same year 11 level chemistry class twice before without such software and the difference in learning is obvious, even only a quarter of the way through the year (in Australia).
At the moment it is a work in progress, but the main point is that when you have a young technology (maybe not in years, but in application) the most useful perspective is not "This will never work outside the lab" but "How can I make this work in a real classroom?"
Finally, I have read that book and it is excellent. However, I see that quote as meaning "you can't [just] pop it into the classroom", not that you shouldn't or can't redesign it for the classroom. After all - sorry about the spoiler - but Willingham ultimately recommends spaced practice! :)
A Student's Response
To some extent you are correct. Reviewing old material can be very unmotivating. However, remembering useful knowledge that you read 6 months ago is very motivational. I am an avid reader, and used to be able to master a huge amount of knowledge in weeks. My only problem was forgetting. After some Googling i found Supermemo.
I did not trust Supermemo at all in the beginning, I thought it made me fall behind. The first week i spent dubble the amount of time compared to my classmates for the same amount of knowledge. I was close to quitting. However, after a month I compared my retention to them. Guess what? I remembered most of the things where they hade forgotten more than half. Never have I been more motivated then when I realized how powerful space repetition is.
My point is: space repetition is very unmotivational in the beginning but when you see results it becomes very motivating. It is the same for working out in order to loose weight. Very unmotivation to run in the beginning but when you loose some pounds it becomes very motivating
Could you explain the meaning of "material is unstructured (e.g. lecture format)"? Lecturers usually try to structure lectured knowledge ;)
Structuring material for learning
To remember well we need to stick to some rules that make questions simple and unambiguous. We should rather use the term "badly formulated items". However, it may happen that in some texts at SuperMemopedia you will see some less precise phrases like "poorly structures items" or even "unstructured material".
See: 20 rules